Developing insight into the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of critical importance to overcome the global pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). In this study, we have applied Mendelian randomization (MR) to systematically evaluate the effect of 10 cardiometabolic risk factors and genetic liability to lifetime smoking on 97 circulating host proteins postulated to either interact or contribute to the maladaptive host response of SARS-CoV-2.
We applied the inverse variance weighted (IVW) approach and several robust MR methods in a two-sample setting to systemically estimate the genetically predicted effect of each risk factor in turn on levels of each circulating protein. Multivariable MR was conducted to simultaneously evaluate the effects of multiple risk factors on the same protein. We also applied MR using cis-regulatory variants at the genomic location responsible for encoding these proteins to estimate whether their circulating levels may influence severe SARS-CoV-2.
In total, we identified evidence supporting 105 effects between risk factors and circulating proteins which were robust to multiple testing corrections and sensitivity analyzes. For example, body mass index provided evidence of an effect on 23 circulating proteins with a variety of functions, such as inflammatory markers c-reactive protein (IVW Beta=0.34 per standard deviation change, 95% CI=0.26 to 0.41, P = 2.19 × 10) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IVW Beta=0.23, 95% CI=0.17 to 0.30, P = 9.04 × 10). Further analyzes using multivariable MR provided evidence that the effect of BMI on lowering immunoglobulin G, an antibody class involved in protection from infection, is substantially mediated by raised triglycerides levels (IVW Beta=-0.18, 95% CI=-0.25 to -0.12, P = 2.32 × 10, proportion mediated=44.1%). The strongest evidence that any of the circulating proteins highlighted by our initial analysis influence severe SARS-CoV-2 was identified for soluble glycoprotein 130 (odds ratio=1.81, 95% CI=1.25 to 2.62, P = 0.002), a signal transductor for interleukin-6 type cytokines which are involved in inflammatory response. However, based on current case samples for severe SARS-CoV-2 we were unable to replicate findings in independent samples.
Our findings highlight several key proteins which are influenced by established exposures for disease. Future research to determine whether these circulating proteins mediate environmental effects onto risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or covid-19 progression are warranted to help elucidate therapeutic strategies for severe covid-19 disease.
The Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust, the British Heart Foundation and UK Research and Innovation.