The aims of this study were to characterize the biochemical profile, the reproductive performance and to identify potential predictive biomarkers of disease state of dairy cows with hyperketonemia, lipomobilization and hypocalcemia raised in tropical conditions in southeastern Brazil. Dairy cows (n = 50) were divided into a group of healthy cows (n = 14), cows with lipomobilization (n = 14), cows with hypocalcemia (n = 11), and a group of cows with hyperketonemia (n = 11). Evaluation of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW) and blood samples were performed on 21, 14, 7, 4, and 2 days before calving, parturition, 1, 7, 14, 21, 30, 45 and 60 days postpartum and milk production was recorded on days 7, 14, 21, 30, 45 and 60 after parturition. Blood samples were assayed for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutammyltransferase (GGT), albumin, total protein, globulin, fibrinogen, total cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, creatinine concentrations. The biochemical profile, BCS, BW, milk production and reproductive performance differed (P < 0.05) among the groups. Our findings indicate changes in the biochemical profile of dairy cows with metabolic diseases and impaired production and fertility of dairy cows in this group. Variable importance in projection plots demonstrated that cholesterol, urea, total protein, albumin and fibrinogen in the serum were the strongest discriminators between hypocalcemic and healthy cows; and AST, cholesterol, urea and triglycerides for hyperketonemic and healthy cows; and cholesterol, urea, triglycerides, total protein and fibrinogen for lipomobilization and healthy cows, which might be useful as predictive biomarkers of the disease state.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.