The objective of this study was to evaluate the vascular parameters of the retinal zones and the optic disc (OD) with the use of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
This study enrolled 60 patients with T1DM without clinically detectable diabetic retinopathy (DR), along with 59 age-, gender-, and pubertal stage-matched controls. The ages of the participants in both groups were < 18 years. Retinal and OD measurements were carried out with OCTA. Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, non-flow area (NFA), FAZ perimeter (PERIM), acircularity index of FAZ (AI, the rate of the perimeter of FAZ and the perimeter of a circle with equal area), foveal density (FD), superficial (SCP), and the deep capillary plexus (DCP) were analyzed in the macular region. SCP and DCP were also scanned centered on the OD. Correlations between the OCTA parameters with duration of DM, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, and microalbuminuria were evaluated among patients with T1DM.
The mean values for NFA were significantly higher and mean FD were significantly lower in the diabetic group compared with the controls (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). The mean values for SCP and DCP were significantly lower in diabetic group (p < 0.05). The mean values for capillary density in the OD were also significantly lower in diabetic group (p < 0.05). There were correlations between the duration of T1DM, HbA1c levels and microalbuminuria, and the investigated parameters of OCTA.
The presence of microvascular changes in both retinal zones and the OD in children with T1DM without retinopathy is an important data. OCTA can be used for the early detection of DR in children.