Laryngeal transoral surgery classically requires a neuromuscular block (NMB) to facilitate tracheal intubation and to improve surgical conditions. However, the short duration of most procedures and the potential complications of residual NMB lead to consider a no block approach. The hypothesis that intravenous anesthesia (remifentanil and propofol infusions) without NMB but including glottis topical lidocaine anesthesia would allow clinically acceptable laryngeal exposure and good surgical conditions was tested in the specific context of procedures undergone with High Frequency Jet Ventilation (HFJV).
A prospective randomized clinical comparison.
66 consenting patients were planned to receive 0.6 mg·kg rocuronium or saline at random. The outcome measurements included the time and conditions to complete suspended laryngoscopy, and the surgical conditions rated by the surgeon. Any vocal cord movement or coughing was recorded. Data were compared using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test for numerical variables and chi-square test for categorical ones. Treatment failure was defined as an impossible laryngoscopy or a grade 4 surgical field occurring at any time during surgery and was compared to its null theoretical value by a general z-test. An interim analysis after completion of 50% patients was performed using Pocock boundaries at 0.0294 significance levels.
A significant failure rate occurred in the non paralysed group (27%, p < 0.001). No coughing and no vocal cords movement occurred in the NMB group. Poorer surgical conditions were obtained without NMB (p = 0.011).
Inducing a deep NMB ensured improved conditions during direct laryngeal microsurgery with HFJV.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.