Gain of function variants in SAMD9 cause MIRAGE syndrome, a rare Mendelian disorder that results in myeloid dysplastic syndrome (MDS), poor immune response, restricted growth, adrenal insufficiency, ambiguous genitalia, feeding difficulties and most often significantly reduced lifespan. In this study, we describe histomorphologic and genetic changes occurring in serial bone marrow measurements in a patient with MIRAGE syndrome and untreated MDS of 9 years. Histomorphological analysis during childhood showed progressive hypocellularity with erythroid and megakaryocytic dysplasia and cytogenetic testing demonstrated monosomy 7. Serial leukemia gene panel testing performed over a seven year period revealed multiple pre-leukemic clones arising at age 7 years followed by sequential mutational events in ETV6 and RUNX1 driving acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at age 9. Comprehensive genotype-phenotype analysis with 28 previously reported patients found the presence of MDS did not impact overall survival, but in silico variant pathogenicity prediction scores for SAMD9 distinguished patients with poor prognosis. Overall, our analysis shows progression of MDS to AML can be monitored by following mutation evolution in leukemia related genes in patients with MIRAGE syndrome, and specific SAMD9 mutations likely influence disease severity and overall survival.
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