To study the frequency of general surgical diseases development snd their features in patients after heart transplantation (HTx).
From January 2010 to December 2018 it was performed 112 HTx (mean age – 46.7±14.0 years old; 82 – male, 30 – female). During 30 days after HTx 9 patients died. After discharge all recipients (n=98) were included in dispensary observation list. We retrospectively analyzed patients (n=35) who underwent general surgery manipulations in more than 30 days after HTx. All surgical interventions have been done under the reduction of immunosuppression therapy.
During 9 years of post-heart transplant follow-up 45 surgical interventions were performed, 7% (n=3) of them due to infectious complications, 31% (n=14) – oncology and others (62%, n=28). Most of manipulations were planned (39 from 45, 87%), the following general surgery interven- tions prevailed: laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n=13) and those to remove inguinal and umbilical hernia (n=12). During the 1st year the frequency of diseases required surgical treatment was 26% (n=11), infectious causes took place in 5 patients, non-infectious – in 6. Subsequently the incidence of infectious complications decreased that could be associated with the minimization of immunosuppressive therapy. Oncology was more frequent long-term after HTx – more than 3 years: among them the development of colon polyps prevailed and all recipients underwent polypectomy. There was no impact of age, gender, causes of chronic heart failure, obesity, immunosuppressive regimen (including the induction) on the frequency of general surgery diseases development (p>0.05).
Based on our experience, we proposed an algorithm of examination, the features of surgical tactics and preparation for it in heart transplanted recipients are described. The important role of post-heart transplant follow-up in the timely detection of diseases requiring general surgical care is given.