Although optic neuritis and myelitis are the core clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), appropriate animal models of NMOSD with myelitis and optic neuritis are lacking. we developed a mouse model of NMOSD by intravenously injecting 100 µg neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G antibody (NMO-IgG) and complement into experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice after reversible blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening by microbubble-enhanced low-frequency ultrasound (MELFUS). Animals were assessed by histopathology. We found noticeable inflammation and demyelination concomitant with the loss of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in the spinal cord, brain and optic nerve, as well as human IgG and C9neo deposition. Thus, with the help of MELFUS, we established an NMOSD mouse model with the core lesions of NMOSD by applying a considerably lower dose of human NMO-IgG, which may help identify the pathogenesis and facilitate the development of other neuroimmune disease models in the future.
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