Zhigancao decoction recorded in Treatise on Febrile Disease by Zhang Zhongjing in the Han dynasty have been widely used in treating palpitation and irregular pulse by traditional Chinese medicine physicians for thousands of years. It is all known that Zhigancao Decoction is used to treat consumptive disease. However,why it has been used to treat exogenous febrile disease? According to studies,Fumai Decoctions in Treatise on Differentiation and Treatment of Epidemic Febrile Disease,that was modified based on Zhigancao Decoction,have their names without reality. Serious defects,including unclear diagnosis,curative effect,and prognosis,have been found in ancient and modern medical records about Zhigancao Decoction. The indications of Zhigancao Decoction include atrial premature beats,ventricular premature beats,and viral myocarditis; tachyarrhythmia( supraventricular tachycardia,atrial fibrillation)with long interval or conduction block,during or after severe infection or high fever; chronic consumptive disease due to tumor after radiotherapy and chemotherapy,malignant fluid state of tumor,hematopathy,terminal stage of heart failure after major operation,and acute hemorrhage after control of severe infection and other major diseases; cough,phlegm and asthma due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,pulmonary interstitial fibrosis,lung cancer,after lung cancer surgery; increased heart rate and decreased blood pressure due to insufficient capacity after acute blood loss; the symptoms included palpitation,chest tightness,sweating,lassitude,lacking in strength,shortness of breath,syncope,sudden death,cough,expectoration,excessive phlegm,clear and dilute sputum,emaciation,dry and haggard skin,constipation,haemorrhagic,uterine bleeding,enjoy sweet taste,red tongue without moss,knotted pulse,intermittent pulse,thready rapid pulse,and weak pulse. Besides,Zhigancao Decoction has effect on cardioversion and maintenance of sinus rhythm without thrombosis in persistent atrial fibrillation and permanent atrial fibrillation. Zhigancao Decoction could stop bleeding soon for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding,and achieve positivity of occult blood test; Zhigancao Decoction could promote thrombocytopenia for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura,with the number of platelets 1×109/L. Zhigancao Decoction could promote the rise of granulocytic,erythroid and megakaryocytic hematopoietic lines in unexplained severe anemia,thrombocytopenia,and leukocyte reduction. Zhigancao Decoction could treat cough,asthma,and chest tightness in lung cancer and after lung cancer surgery; chronic consumptive disease due to lung cancer after lung cancer surgery,hematopathy and acute blood loss,which all belonged to the scope of consumptive disease. Zhigancao Decoction could ascend platelets,which was considered as ” oriental interleukins” for the ancients. Zhigancao Decoction possesses dual-directional regulation on anticoagulant and hemostasis,which was considered as ” oriental low molecular heparin” and ” oriental proton pump inhibitors”. Large dose of Rehmannia glutinosa is the key of the efficacy of Zhigancao Decoction. This study is expected to enrich the guidelines for modern medical diagnosis and treatment. However,the clinical evidence,relevant genes and targeting network need to be deepened in future studies. In conclusion,it may be a shortcut to restore and explain Zhigancao Decoction formula syndromes based on modern pathophysiology and severe cases of critical care.