Pre-grafting condition is an important method to promote recovery from transplant surgery during pearl production. In the present study, we constructed two DNA methylomes from pearl oysters with and without conditioning to investigate the molecular mechanism of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii underlying the pre-grafting condition. A total of 4,594,997 and 4,930,813 methyl CG in the control (Con) and pre-grafting group (PT) were detected, resulting in the whole genome methylation profile and methylation pattern in P. f. martensii. Results reveal that the promoter, especially the CpG island-rich region, was more infrequently methylated than the gene function elements in P. f. martensii. A total of 51,957 differently methylated regions (DMRs) between Con and PT were obtained, including 3789 DMR in the promoter and 16,021 in the gene body. Based on gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses, these DMRs were mainly related to “cellular process”, “metabolic process”, “Epstein-Barr virus infection”, and “Fanconi anemia pathway”. The methylation site in the promoter region may be associated with the promoter activity and transcription factor binding. These results help our understanding of the mechanism of pre-grafting condition, thereby providing key information in guiding to improve the conditioning methods for enhanced pearl oyster survival rate after transplantation.
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