Ciliopathies are a group of multi-organ diseases caused by the disruption of the primary cilium. This event leads to a variety of kidney disorders, including nephronophthisis, renal cystic dysplasia, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Primary cilium contributes to the regulation of the cell cycle and protein homeostasis, that is, the balance between protein synthesis and degradation by acting on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy, and mTOR signaling. Many proteins are involved in renal ciliopathies. In particular, fibrocystin (PKHD1) is involved in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), while polycystin-1 (PKD1) and polycystin-2 (PKD2) are implicated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Moreover, primary cilia are associated with essential signaling pathways, such as Hedgehog, Wnt, and Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF). In this review, we focused on the ciliopathies associated with kidney diseases, exploring genes and signaling pathways associated with primary cilium and the potential role of cilia as therapeutic targets in renal disorders.