In this era of technology, neurological disorders are the most prevalent disorders in growing population. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are the most common neurological disorders which are manifested by any abnormality in the structure and functions of neurons present in brain and spinal cord. Exposure to environmental pollution is a serious issue which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rate in the worldwide. Air pollutants are the major contributors to induce the inflammation in lungs and brain which ultimately impairs the normal functioning of CNS. Air pollution persuades CNS pathology by inducing the oxidative stress, activation of microglial cells, neuroinflammation and alteration in permeability of blood brain barrier. Similarly, exposure of heavy metals also exhibits the major and long-lasting effects on brain and causes cognitive dysfunction. Likewise, pesticides have also major influence on the etiology of neurological disorders. Pesticides such as paraquat and rotenone are involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Treatment strategy for environmental pollutants-induced neurological disorders is a challenging task because conventional therapeutics are effective but do not have optimum therapeutic efficacy against such type of disorders. This article addresses how the environmental pollutants are involved in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders and treatment strategies to reduce the occurrence of neurological disorders.