Aberrant expression of various miRNA species has been implicated in numerous cardiac diseases, e.g., heart failure, hypertrophy, conduction disturbances, and arrhythmogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-133b can serve as biomarkers in the diagnosis of ventricular (Va) and supraventricular (SVa) arrhythmias in pediatric patients.
Molecular analysis included 30 patients with SVa or Va (13-17.5 years; 14 boys/16 girls) and 20 non-arrhythmic controls. Arrhythmia was confirmed by 24-h Holter ECG recording. miRNA was extracted from serum using the miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit. miScript SYBR Green PCR Kit (Qiagen) was used to quantify miRNA expression.
The levels of miR-1 and miR-133a expression were significantly higher in the SVa group than in the controls (p ​= ​0.0327 and p<0.0001, respectively). Additionally, both groups of patients with arrhythmia presented significantly lower expression levels of miR-133b than the controls (p<0.01 for both comparisons). The level of miR-133a expression in the SVa group was significantly higher than in the Va group (p ​= ​0.0124). ROC analysis demonstrated that the expressions of miR-1 and miR-133a could differentiate between the SVa patients and arrhythmia-free controls (AUC ​= ​0.7091, p ​= ​0.07 and AUC ​= ​0.8021, p ​= ​0.007, respectively). Furthermore, the expression of miR-133b was shown to distinguish patients with SVa and Va from the arrhythmia-free controls (AUC ​= ​0.7273, p ​= ​0.07 and AUC ​= ​0.8030, p ​= ​0.04, respectively).
miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-133b have the potential to become diagnostic biomarkers of arrhythmia in pediatric patients.

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