Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) regulates the proliferation and migration of human retinal endothelial cells, as well as retinal neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy. Based on similarities between the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and diabetic retinopathy, lncRNA may also play a role in ROP. Seven-day-old mice were administered 75 ± 2% oxygen for 5 days and normoxic air for another 5 days to establish a ROP model. Expression of lncRNA and mRNA in the retinal tissue of mice was detected by high-throughput sequencing technology, and biological functions of the resulted differentially expressed RNAs were evaluated by Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses. The results showed that compared with the control group, 57 lncRNAs were differentially expressed, including 43 upregulated and 14 downregulated, in the retinal tissue of ROP mice. Compared with control mice, 42 mRNAs were differentially expressed in the retinal tissue of ROP mice, including 24 upregulated and 18 downregulated mRNAs. Differentially expressed genes were involved in ocular development and related metabolic pathways. The differentially expressed lncRNAs may regulate ROP in mice via microRNAs and multiple signaling pathways. Our results revealed that these differentially expressed lncRNAs may be therapeutic targets for ROP treatment. This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University on February 25, 2016 (approval No. 2016PS074K).