Immobility is common and associated with adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients, especially older people. However, the factors contributing to mortality in bedridden patients are not well known. This study aimed to estimate short-term mortality and analyze risk factors that affect the prognosis of bedridden patients.
This was a multicenter study in China involving 23,738 patients admitted to 25 hospitals between November 2015 and June 2016. All-cause mortality was recorded for 90 days after enrollment regardless of whether death occurred before or after discharge. Socio-demographic and clinical information was obtained from an electronic database. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with mortality.
In total, 23,738 hospitalized bedridden patients, there were 1,114 (4.7%) observed deaths. The overall mortality rate was therefore 4.7%. Of these, 318 (1.4%) died while hospitalized and 796 (3.4%) after discharge. The univariate Cox regression analysis showed that variables significantly associated with 90-day mortality included total time spent bedridden, urinary tract infection and pulmonary infection (p<0.05). The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the independent risk factors for death were age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.006, 95% CI 1.000-1.011), and pulmonary infection (aHR 1.439, 95% CI 1.266-1.635). The hazard ratios for mortality were reduced with urinary tract infection and more time spent bedridden.
The mortality after discharge was significantly higher than mortality in hospital. The factors affecting short-term mortality in bedridden patients included age, time spent bedridden, urinary tract infection and pulmonary infection. This suggests these factors may be potential predictors of mortality in bedridden patients. It is essential for medical staff to improve health education of patients and family members, pay more attention to follow up after discharge and meet care needs at home.