Cancer-specific death (CSD) and non-cancer-specific death (non-CSD) after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for pulmonary oligometastases have not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative incidences of CSD and non-CSD and to reveal prognostic factors. Data from a large survey of SBRT for pulmonary oligometastases were used for analyses, and patients with unknown cause of death were excluded from current analyses. CSD was primary cancer death and non-CSD was non-primary cancer death including a series of cancer treatment-related deaths. Cumulative incidences were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and a stratified Cox regression model was used for multivariate analyses (MVA). Fifty-two patients with an unknown death were excluded and a total of 1326 patients was selected. CSD and non-CSD occurred in 375 and 109 patients, respectively. The median OS period was 53.2 months and the cumulative incidences of 1-, 3-, and 5-year CSD vs. non-CSD rates were 6.5% vs. 2.3%, 29.5% vs. 8.6%, and 41.2% vs. 11.0%, respectively. In MVA, the incidence of CSD was related to performance status (1 vs. 0; p < 0.001, 2-3 vs. 0; p = 0.011), oligometastatic state (sync-oligometastases vs. oligo-recurrence, p = 0.026) and maximum tumor diameter (p = 0.009), and the incidence of non-CSD was related to age (p = 0.001), sex (p = 0.030), performance status (2-3 vs. 0; p = 0.002), and irradiated tumor-located lung lobe (left lower lobe vs. other lobes, p = 0.036). CSD was main cause of death, but non-CSD was not rare after SBRT. Prognostic factors for CSD and non-CSD were different, and an understanding of the factors would help in treatment.© 2020 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.