To determine whether family environment, signs of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oral health literacy (OHL) are associated with visits to the dentist in adolescents.
A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 448 12-year-old adolescents enrolled at schools in the city of Cajazeiras, Brazil. The adolescents answered a validated questionnaire addressing family cohesion and adaptability (FACES III), an OHL measure (Brazilian Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry [BREALD-30]) and a questionnaire addressing the history of visits to the dentist and previous toothache experience. The parents answered a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic characteristics. Parents and teachers answered the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscales of the Swanson, Nolan & Pelham (SNAP-IV) questionnaire for the detection of signs of ADHD. Multiple Poisson regression with robust variance was used for data analysis (α = 5%).
The prevalence of having visited a dentist some time in life was higher among adolescents with enmeshed (PR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.15) and connected (PR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13) families and those with attention deficit according to parents’ reports (PR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.14). A family income higher than the Brazilian minimum wage (PR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.12) and toothache in the previous six months (PR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) were also associated with the outcome.
Family cohesion and attention deficit according to parental reports influenced visits to the dentist among adolescents. In contrast, OHL was not associated with the outcome.

© 2021 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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