A one-year-old French Bulldog was referred for the management of a severe form of pulmonary valve stenosis (PS) complicated by right-sided congestive heart failure. Echocardiography showed severe valvular PS with right ventricular concentric hypertrophy, dilatation and severe right atrial enlargement. A pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty (PBV) was performed with a balloon-to-pulmonary annulus ratio of 1.36. Echocardiography immediately after PBV showed a significant reduction in right atrial and ventricular size, improved opening and mobility of the pulmonary valve leaflets, and a 75% reduction in the pulmonary pressure gradient from 158 mmHg pre-operative to 40 mmHg post-operative. The dog recovered well from anesthesia, but 2 h later, it suddenly showed severe respiratory distress. Focus cardiac ultrasound showed increased left cardiac size with echocardiographic signs of high left ventricular filling pressure. Bedside lung ultrasound showed diffuse numerous-to-confluent B lines, compatible with a severe alveolar-interstitial syndrome. The dog was treated with furosemide, helmet continuous positive airway pressure, and then mechanical ventilation but without success. At post-mortem evaluation, histological examination of the lung showed diffuse, severe broncho-alveolar edema with mixed leukocyte, fibrin, and red blood cell infiltrate. Moreover, severe congestion and multifocal alveolar hemorrhages were evident. All findings were compatible with fatal acute lung injury after PBV secondary to pulmonary reperfusion-ischemia injury and increased pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure. Based on the present case, acute lung injury should be considered as a rare but serious complication of PBV.
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