Fertility preservation (FP) is a vital issue for individuals in either reproductive or prepubescent stage of life when future fertility may be compromised. The objective of any FP intervention is to minimize or eliminate primary disease burden and to ensure maintaining or preserving reproductive health. Fertility potential can be affected by cancer therapy and numerous other factors, including advancing age, metabolic conditions, autoimmune diseases, specific surgical interventions, and sex affirmation procedures. A paradigm shift focusing on quality-of-life issues and long-term survivorship has emerged, especially because of advances in cancer diagnostics and treatment. Several FP techniques have been widely distributed, while others are still in the research stage. In addition, specific procedures and some potentially fertoprotective agents are being developed, aiming to minimize the hazards of gonadal damage caused by cancer therapy and decrease the need for more costly, invasive, and time-consuming FP methods. This review highlights the advances, indications, and options for FP, both experimental and well-established, in females of various age groups. An electronic search in PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar databases was conducted, including retrospective studies, prospective clinical trials, meta-analyses, original reviews, and online abstracts published up to June 30, 2019. The search terms used included fertility preservation, oncofertility, embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. The meeting proceedings of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine and the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology were also hand searched.Copyright © 2019 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.