We analyzed the outcomes of 14 patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) who received first-line double-unit cord blood transplantation (dUCBT). Patients’ median age was 24.5 years (range, 10-44 years). The median numbers of infused nucleated and CD34 cells were 5.48 × 10/kg (range, 3.33-7.96 × 10/kg) and 2.30 × 10/kg (range, 0.86-3.97 × 10/kg), respectively. One patient died 5 days after transplantation. Three of the 13 patients acquired autologous myeloid recovery. Neutrophil engraftment was observed in 10 patients (76.29%), and the median time of neutrophil recovery was 19 days (range, 15-40 days). Platelet engraftment was observed in 7 cases (53.8%), and 3 patients experienced platelet graft failure. The median time of platelet recovery was 32 days (range, 22-80 days). The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) was 38.5%. One patient demonstrated mild chronic GVHD. After a median follow-up of 61 months (range, 18-102 months), 6 patients were alive. The predicted 5-year overall survival and GVHD-free, failure-free survival rates were 42.9% ± 13.2% and 14.3% ± 9.4%, respectively. The first-line dUCBT for SAA is still primarily evaluated through multicenter prospective clinical trials by an optimal conditioning regimen, cell dose, and other graft and transplantation-related factors.
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