Bariatric surgery is becoming increasingly popular in the treatment of severely obese patients who failed to lose weight with the help of non-surgical interventions. Such patients are at increased risk for premature death, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, gallstones, coronary heart disease, dyslipidemia, some cancers, anxiety, depression, and degenerative joint disorders. Although bariatric surgery appears to be the most effective and durable treatment option for obesity, it is associated with a number of surgical and medical complications. These include a range of conditions, of which dumping syndrome and malnutrition due to malabsorption of vitamins and minerals are the most common. To achieve better surgery outcomes, a number of postsurgical strategies must be considered. The aim of this review was to describe possible complications, ailments, and important moments in the follow-up after bariatric surgery. Adequate lifelong monitoring is crucial for the achievement of long-lasting goals and reduction of post-bariatric complications.
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