Montanide ISA 51VG adjuvant has been approved for human clinical application and stimulates cellular and humoral immune responses. Here, HBsAg was formulated in Montanide ISA51VG adjuvant to compare its potency with the Fendrix and HBsAg-alum vaccines. In particular, the long-term humoral response was assessed up to 220 days after the final immunization. BALB/c mice were allocated into six groups. Treatment groups were injected with HBsAg-Montanide ISA51VG, the Fendrix and commercial HBsAg-alum, respectively. Montanide ISA51 VG, Alum and PBS injected mice were considered as control groups. Mice were immunized three times with 2-week intervals on days 0, 14 and 28 by subcutaneous injection. Lymphocyte proliferation was assessed with the BrdU method. IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4 cytokines, specific total IgG and IgG1/IgG2a isotypes were assessed using ELISA. The HBsAg-Montanide ISA51VG vaccine resulted in a significant increase in lymphocyte proliferation versus HBsAg-alum and higher IL-2 cytokine production versus the Fendrix. Comparable IL-4 and IFN-γ cytokines responses were observed for these vaccines. Following the first immunization, IgG increased more in HBs-Montanide 51VG group versus the HBs-alum group, while after the second and third shots comparable responses were observed in comparison to the HBs-alum group. Monitoring for 220 days after the final vaccination showed the superiority of HBsAg-Montanide ISA 51VG vaccine versus HBsAg-alum and even the Fendrix vaccine in the induction of long-term antibody responses. This study suggests that HBsAg-Montanide ISA51VG as a novel vaccine formulation can trigger both cellular and long-lasting humoral immune responses more efficiently than conventional HBsAg vaccines.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.