Frontal corticostriatal circuits (FCSC) are involved in self-regulation of cognition, emotion, and motor function. While these circuits are implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the literature establishing FCSC associations with ADHD is inconsistent. This may be due to study variability in considerations of how fMRI motion regression was handled between groups, or study specific differences in age, sex, or the striatal subregions under investigation. Given the importance of these domains in ADHD it is crucial to consider the complex interactions of age, sex, striatal subregions and FCSC in ADHD presentation and diagnosis. In this large-scale study of 362 8-12 year-old children with ADHD (n = 165) and typically developing (TD; n = 197) children, we investigate associations between FCSC with ADHD diagnosis and symptoms, sex, and go/no-go (GNG) task performance. Results include: (1) increased striatal connectivity with age across striatal subregions with most of the frontal cortex, (2) increased frontal-limbic striatum connectivity among boys with ADHD only, mostly in default mode network (DMN) regions not associated with age, and (3) increased frontal-motor striatum connectivity to regions of the DMN were associated with greater parent-rated inattention problems, particularly among the ADHD group. Although diagnostic group differences were no longer significant when strictly controlling for head motion, with motion possibly reflecting the phenotypic variance of ADHD itself, the spatial distribution of all symptom, age, sex, and other ADHD group effects were nearly identical to the initial results. These results demonstrate differential associations of FCSC between striatal subregions with the DMN and FPN in relation to age, ADHD, sex, and inhibitory control.Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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Stewart H Mostofsky