The hepatitis B vaccine is the backbone of hepatitis B prevention. All health care workers must receive a full-dose (3-dose vaccine series) to achieve >90% protection against hepatitis B virus. There is limited evidence available on vaccination coverage of HBV among health care workers in Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the national full-dose hepatitis B vaccination coverage and the associated factors among health care workers in Ethiopia.
Studies were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS, CINAHL, and Google Scholar by using a combination of search terms with Boolean operators. The quality of each study was evaluated independently by three authors using the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for cross-sectional studies. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA™ Version 14 software. Meta-analysis was carried out using a random-effects (DerSimonian and Laird) method. The heterogeneity test was conducted by using I-squared (I2) statistics. Leave-one-out sensitivity analysis was performed.
A total of 15 articles with 5734 participants were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of full-dose hepatitis B virus vaccination coverage among health care workers in Ethiopia was 20.04% (95% CI: 13.83, 26.26); I2 = 98.9%). Being male sex (p = 0.002), having work experience of less than 5 years (p < 0.001), educational level of diploma and below (p = 0.003), health care providers who received training on infection prevention (p < 0.001), and those who had a history of exposure to blood and body fluids (p = 0.001), were factors significantly associated with full-dose hepatitis B virus vaccination.
The national full-dose hepatitis B vaccination coverage among health care workers was low. Training of health care workers in infection prevention, particularly in hepatitis B and testing and providing hepatitis B vaccination for newly recruited staff and every 5 years for those long-term workers were recommended to increase the uptake of the vaccine.