Bipolar disorder is characterized by episodes of depression and mania, and oxidative stress has been associated with the observed neurochemical changes in this disease. We evaluated the effects of gallic acid on hyperlocomotion, acetylcholinesterase activity, and oxidative stress in an animal model of ketamine-induced mania. Rats were pretreated orally with vehicle, gallic acid (50 or 100 mg/kg), or lithium (45 mg/kg twice a day) for 14 days. Between days 8 and 14, the animals also received ketamine (25 mg/kg) or saline daily. On the 15th day, hyperlocomotion was assessed, following which the animals were euthanized, and brains were collected. Results showed that ketamine induced hyperlocomotion and caused oxidative damage by increasing reactive oxygen species levels, lipid peroxidation, and nitrite levels, and decreasing the total thiol content and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in the brain. Pretreatment with gallic acid and lithium prevented hyperlocomotion and brain oxidative damage. Further, ketamine increased the acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus and striatum, whereas gallic acid and lithium ameliorated this alteration. Thus, gallic acid may provide effective protection against manic-like behavior by reducing oxidative stress and preventing cholinergic signaling dysfunction in the brain regions involved in emotion regulation.
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