To perform the first systematic review of all available GAS publications across all procedures to assess outcomes reported in the literature and the methods used for outcome assessment.
Assessment of GAS results is complex and multidimensional, involving not only complication rates but also anatomic (eg, vaginal depth), functional (eg, urinary), and psychosocial outcomes. A fully comprehensive aggregation of all prior research would offer an essential cornerstone for continued progress.
A systematic review was performed after PRISMA guidelines to identify all outcomes measures in GAS cohorts, including patient-centered outcomes, complications, and functional outcomes. Data were aggregated to assess pooled rates of complications, satisfaction, and other outcomes.
Overall, 15,186 references were identified, 4162 papers advanced to abstract review, and 1826 underwent full-text review. After review, there were 406 GAS cohort publications, including 171 vaginoplasty, 82 phalloplasty, 16 metoidioplasty, 23 oophorectomy/vaginectomy, and 21 with multiple procedures.Although 68.7% of genitoplasty papers addressed patient-centered outcomes, only 1.0% used metrics validated in the transgender population. Forty-three different outcome instruments were used. No instrument was used in more than 15% of published series and 38 were used in only 1 or 2 publications.
Our review found high patient satisfaction for genital procedures but little concordance between study methods, with almost 90% of patient-focused outcome metrics appearing only once or twice. Standardization of outcome instruments and measurement methods through patient-inclusive, multidisciplinary consensus efforts is the essential next step for quality improvement. As GAS continues to mature, building on current foundations with the goal of improving both surgical and patient-reported outcomes is essential.

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