Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative eye disease that results in retinal ganglion cell loss and ultimately loss of vision. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most common known risk factor for retinal ganglion cell damage and visual field loss, and the only modifiable risk factor proven to reduce the development and progression of glaucoma. This has greatly influenced our approach and assessment in terms of diagnosis and treatment. However, as many as ≥50% of patients with progressive vision loss from primary open angle glaucoma without IOP elevation (≤22 mm Hg) have been reported in the United States and Canada; 90% in Japan and 80% in Korea. Extensive research is currently underway to identify the etiology of risk factors for glaucoma other than or in addition to elevated IOP (so-called “normal-tension” glaucoma; NTG) and use this knowledge to expand available treatment options. Currently, Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for glaucoma exclusively target elevated IOP, suggesting the need for additional approaches to treatment options beyond the current scope as the definition of glaucoma changes to encompass cellular and molecular mechanisms. This review focuses on alternative medical approaches, specifically Ginkgo Biloba extract, as a potential treatment option for normal-tension glaucoma.

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PubMed