Giardia duodenalis is one of the leading causes of diarrhea, mostly in underdeveloped nations of Africa and Asia. The present review provides insights into the prevalence, odds ratios (ORs) and associated risk factors of giardiasis in HIV/AIDS patients. Four major English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar) were excavated for relevant literature without time limitation until 20 November 2020. Next, meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). As well, heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using Cochran’s Q and the I-statistic. Totally, 19,218 HIV/AIDS patients in 130 studies were examined, showing a 5% (95% CI: 4.2%-6%) pooled prevalence. Also, the weighted random-effects OR of G. duodenalis infection among HIV/AIDS patients in comparison with their controls in 48 case-control studies was estimated as 1.71% (95% CI: 1.1%-2.66%, p = 0.016). Based on sensitivity analysis, there was no remarkable variation in the pooled OR upon omitting individual studies. Diarrhea was a potent risk factor, since HIV/AIDS patients with diarrhea were 3.8-times (95% CI: 1.6-8.9, p = 0.002) more prone to G. duodenalis infection than those without diarrhea. Moreover, the prevalence of the parasitic infection was 1.2-times higher in patients without antiretroviral therapy (ART) than those with ART (p = 0.312). Meta-regression was employed to evaluate the possible association between G. duodenalis frequency in HIV/AIDS patients and some variables such as sample size, publication year, and HDI. Additionally, the pooled prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was estimated based on several subgroups, including publication years, WHO regions, countries, continents, country incomes, and CD4 T-cell levels. Altogether, the epidemiology of giardiasis in HIV/AIDS patients and its association with various risk factors is still open to question and requires more detailed and comprehensive investigations.Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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Amir Masoud Salemi