The objective of this study is to provide comprehensive and up-to-date estimates on the disease burden of BPH in 204 countries and territories between 1990 and 2019. Data about incidence, year lived with disability (YLD), and their age-standardized rates (ASRs) for 21 regions, 5 Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintiles, 204 countries and territories, and 12 age categories from 1990 to 2019 were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 study. Estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) of the ASRs and the associations between SDI and the ASRs were estimated. The effects of population growth, population aging, and age-specific rate on the changes in the absolute numbers of incidence and YLD were quantified. Globally, there were 11.26 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 8.79, 14.46) new cases and 1.86 million (95%UI: 1.13, 2.78) YLD due to BPH in 2019. The global ASRs of incidence (EAPC: -0.031, 95% CI: -0.050, -0.012) and YLD (EAPC: -0.058, 95% CI: -0.084, -0.031) decreased slightly from 1990 to 2019, whereas the absolute numbers increased dramatically from 1990 (incidence by 105.7% and YLD by 110.6%), mainly driven by the population growth (53.5% for incidence and 54.4% for YLD) and population aging (55.7% for incidence and 63.2% for YLD). The burden of BPH varied markedly among different regions, socioeconomic status, and countries. As the population is growing and aging, great efforts are required to develop effective prevention, treatment and management strategies to meet the high and increasing burden of BPH worldwide.
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