Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a heterogeneous cerebral insult induced by traumatic biomechanical forces. Mitochondria play a critical role in brain bioenergetics, and TBI induces several consequences related with oxidative stress and excitotoxicity clearly demonstrated in different experimental model involving TBI. Mitochondrial bioenergetics alterations can present several targets for therapeutics which could help reduce secondary brain lesions such as neuropsychiatric problems, including memory loss and motor impairment. Guanosine (GUO), an endogenous neuroprotective nucleoside, affords the long-term benefits of controlling brain neurodegeneration, mainly due to its capacity to activate the antioxidant defense system and maintenance of the redox system. However, little is known about the exact protective mechanism exerted by GUO on mitochondrial bioenergetics disruption induced by TBI. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GUO in brain cortical and hippocampal mitochondrial bioenergetics in the mild TBI model. Additionally, we aimed to assess whether mitochondrial damage induced by TBI may be related to behavioral alterations in rats. Our findings showed that 24 h post-TBI, GUO treatment promotes an adaptive response of mitochondrial respiratory chain increasing oxygen flux which it was able to protect against the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) induced by TBI, restored the respiratory electron transfer system (ETS) established with an uncoupler. Guanosine also increased respiratory control ratio (RCR) and bioenergetics efficiency. In addition, mitochondrial bioenergetics failure was closely related with locomotor, exploratory and memory impairments. The present results suggest GUO promotes further efficiency of mitochondrial OXPHOS coupling determinated by HRR reducing the bioenergetics failure in different brain regions. These findings may contribute to the development of future therapies with a target on failure energetic metabolism induced by TBI.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.