People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience reduced quality of life (QoL) because of the high symptom and treatment burden. Limited data exist on the factors associated with overall and domain-specific QoL across all CKD stages.
Using data from a prospective, multinational study (Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Spain) in 1696 participants with CKD, we measured overall and domain-specific QoL (pain, self-care, activity, mobility, anxiety/depression) using the EuroQoL, 5 dimension, 3 level. Multivariable linear regression and logistic modeling were used to determine factors associated with overall and domain-specific QoL.
QoL for patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 (n = 787; mean, 0.81; SD, 0.20) was higher than in patients on dialysis (n = 415; mean, 0.76; SD, 0.24) but lower than in kidney transplant recipients (n = 494; mean, 0.84; SD, 0.21). Factors associated with reduced overall QoL (β [95% confidence intervals]) included being on dialysis (compared with CKD stages 3-5: -0.06 [-0.08 to -0.03]), female sex (-0.03 [-0.05 to -0.006]), lower educational attainment (- 0.04 [-0.06 to -0.02), lacking a partner (-0.04 [-0.06 to -0.02]), having diabetes (-0.05 [-0.07 to -0.02]), history of stroke (-0.09 [-0.13 to -0.05]), cardiovascular disease (-0.06 [-0.08 to -0.03]), and cancer (-0.03 [-0.06 to -0.009]). Pain (43%) and anxiety/depression (30%) were the most commonly affected domains, with dialysis patients reporting decrements in all 5 domains. Predictors for domain-specific QoL included being on dialysis, presence of comorbidities, lower education, female sex, and lack of a partner.
Being on dialysis, women with CKD, those with multiple comorbidities, lack of a partner, and lower educational attainment were associated with lower QoL across all stages of CKD.

© 2020 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc.