We examined associations of diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and body mass index (BMI), separately and as a cumulative lifestyle score, with incident hospitalized HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). This analysis included 40,095 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative clinical trial and observational studies, aged 50-79 years and without self-reported HF at baseline. A healthy lifestyle score (HLS) was developed, in which women received 1 point for each healthy lifestyle. A weighted HLS was also created to examine the independent magnitude of each of the lifestyle factors in HF subtypes. Trained adjudicators determined cases of incident hospitalized HF, HFpEF, HFrEF through March 2018. Multiple variable Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During a mean follow-up period of 14.5 years, 659 incident HFrEF and 1276 HFpEF cases were documented. Across unweighted HLS of 0 (referent), 1, 2, 3, and 4, multivariable adjusted HRs (95% CI) for HFrEF were 1.00, 0.52 (0.38, 0.71), 0.40 (0.29, 0.56), 0.33 (0.23, 0.48), and 0.33 (0.19, 0.56) (P-trend = 0.03) and for HFpEF were 1.00, 0.47 (0.37, 0.59), 0.39 (0.30, 0.49), 0.26 (0.20, 0.34), and 0.23 (0.15, 0.35) (P-trend < 0.001). Results were similar for the weighted HLS. Our findings suggest that following a healthy lifestyle pattern is associated with lower risks of HFpEF and HFrEF among postmenopausal women.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.