Heart failure is a common and devastating complication of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Prompt recognition of heart failure may avert hospitalization, facilitate use of guideline-directed therapies, and impact choice of T2D medications. We sought to determine the rate and factors associated with heart failure documentation in T2D patients with evidence of volume overload requiring loop diuretics.
DCR is an on-going, prospective US registry of outpatient T2D patients from > 5000 cardiology, endocrinology, and primary care clinicians (current analysis used data from 2013-2019). Among T2D patients receiving loop diuretics, we examined the rate of chart documentation of heart failure. We used a 3-level hierarchical logistic regression model (patients nested within physician within practice) to examine factors associated with heart failure diagnosis.
Among 1,322,640 adults with T2D, 225,125 (17.0%) were receiving a loop diuretic, of whom 91,969 (40.9%) had documentation of heart failure. Male sex, lower body mass index, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, and coronary artery disease were associated with greater odds of heart failure diagnosis. After accounting for patient factors, patients seen by cardiologists were the most likely to have HF documented followed by PCPs and then endocrinologists.
Among US outpatients with T2D, 17% of patients had evidence of volume overload-defined by loop diuretic prescription-of whom fewer than half had a clinical diagnosis of heart failure. While there may be non-heart failure indications for loop diuretics, our data suggest that a substantial proportion of T2D patients may have unrecognized heart failure and therefore could be missing opportunities for targeted therapies that could alter the clinical course of heart failure.