Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a cosmopolitan foodborne pathogen. The viral agent infects humans through the consumption of contaminated food (uncooked or undercooked). Most cases of infection are asymptomatic and for this reason, this pathology is considered underdiagnosed. Domestic and wild animals are considered natural reservoirs: that is, domestic pig, wild boar, sheep, goat, deer, rabbit, and so on. Therefore, various work categories are at risk: that is, veterinarians, farmers, hunters, slaughterhouse workers, and so on. In these last decades, researchers found a high percentage of positivity to the molecular viral detection in several food matrices included: ready-to-eat products, processed meat products, milk, and shellfish. This review aims to provide an international scenario regarding HEV ribonucleic acid (RNA) detection in several foodstuffs. From this investigative perspective, the study aims to highlight various gaps of the current knowledge about technologies treatments’ impact on viral loads. The purpose was also to provide an innovative point of view “One Health”-based, pointing out the strategic role of environmental safety.
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