Hereditary predispositions to adult kidney tumors involve around 5% of tumors and include a dozen of autosomal dominant syndromes. The most frequent tumors encountered in these setting are clear cell renal cell carcinomas, papillary renal cell carcinomas, chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and angiomyolipomas. Their detection is essential in order to adapt individual care and perform genetic screening of at-risk relatives, especially in the national french network PREDIR, labeled by the National Cancer Institute and dedicated to hereditary predispositions to kidney tumors. Targeted genetic analysis, which was guided in particular by the renal tumor subtype, has recently evolved into genetic analysis using panels of genes. Pathologist contribution’s remains however central in the diagnosis of hereditary forms since we currently have immunohistochemical biomarkers that allow us to diagnose two specifically hereditary entities: hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma associated-renal cell carcinoma, associated with a loss of fumarate hydratase and succinate dehydrogenase-deficient renal cell carcinoma associated with a loss of succinate deshydrogenase B expression. These diagnoses must however be confirmed by the identification of pathogenic germline variation in the corresponding genes. Improvement of kidney tumors characterization has also lead to identify new subtypes, expanding the algorithm of renal tumors associated with hereditary setting. Here we aim to review all subtypes of adult renal tumors encountered in predisposition syndromes.
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