To compare the annual axial length (AL) changes in myopic children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and those without diabetes.
There are two groups of myopic children in this retrospective cohort study. Group 1 consisted of myopic children with T1DM (44 eyes of 22 patients). Group 2 comprised age-matched myopic children without diabetes (44 eyes of 22 children). These two groups were compared with regard to their baseline clinical characteristics. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) model was also used to determine the most likely factor that contributed to the results.
The average ages of group 1 and group 2 were 14.8 and 14.6 years, respectively. Children in group 1 had significantly slower annual AL changes (0.051 mm/year vs 0.103 mm/year; 50.5% slower, P = 0.011) and shorter baseline AL (23.97 vs 25.19 mm, P < 0.001) than those in group 2. GEE also showed that serum glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level (B = -0.023, P = 0.039) was the most important factor in reducing AL elongation in group 1 myopic children.
Long-term higher HbA1c level may reduce AL elongation. A strict blood sugar control strategy in clinical practice is warranted to axial myopia progression in T1DM children.