The aim of this study was to describe recent developments in renal transplantation for HIV-positive recipients, especially the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) trial results.
HOPE trial data show that HIV-positive D+/R+ results are excellent and similar to D-/R+ in patients controlled on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients coinfected with hepatitis C or B virus now have effective treatment available. As pretransplant evaluation and post-transplant management is more complex in HIV-positive individuals early referral is important and coordination of evaluation and care with an infectious disease specialist is critical. HIV coordinated care services should be involved for best outcomes. HIV-positive renal transplant recipients have an increased risk of rejection and evidence suggests that standard lymphocyte depletion induction and maintenance immunosuppression be employed. Cardiovascular risk reduction and surveillance and attention to metabolic bone disease are important for HIV-positive renal transplant recipients.
HIV-positive to HIV-positive renal transplantation has been established as well tolerated and successful. Further efforts are needed to expand access to transplantation in this population.

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