Mixed oil intravenous lipid emulsion (MO ILE) that contains 30% soybean oil (SO), 30% medium chain triglycerides, 25% olive oil and 15% fish oil can benefit hospitalized patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) but there are very few studies on its long-term use. Our goal was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of adults receiving home PN (HPN) with MO versus those receiving SO ILE over a 2-year period.
This is a retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively from a cohort of patients recorded in the Canadian HPN Registry over a 2-year period. HPN patients from academic programs across Canada were entered in the Registry according to a validated protocol. For this study, demographic, nutritional, laboratory and clinical data were extracted from January 1st 2015, when MO lipid emulsion became available in Canada, to July 24th 2019. Clinical data for each patient included: number of hospitalizations, number of hospitalizations related to HPN and number of hospitalization days related to HPN, over a year; incidence of line sepsis per 1000 catheter days and mortality. Data are presented as median (1st, 3rd quartile) for continuous variables and frequency (percentage) for categorical variables. Comparisons between groups were performed using two sample t-test or Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests for continuous variables and Chi-square tests or Fisher’s exact tests for categorical variables. Univariate and multiple linear regressions were also carried out. Statistical significance is set at a p-value <0.05.
A total of 120 patients were included (MO n = 68, SO n = 52). Significant differences at baseline between the two groups were a higher use of Hickman line (62.12% vs 42%, p = 0.038) and more western Canada based hospital care with MO (75% vs 42.31%, p = 0.0002). The MO group had significantly more hospitalizations (p = 0.001), more hospitalizations related to HPN (p = 0.012) and more hospitalization days related to HPN (p = 0.016) per patient per year compared to SO patients. There was no significant difference between groups for line sepsis per 1000 catheter days (MO: 0.05 (0.0, 1.0) vs SO: 0.0 (0.0, 0.22), p = 0.053) or mortality. All other variables, including biochemical variables, were similar between groups. In a multiple regression analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with a greater number of hospitalizations per patient per year: use of MO, high blood glucose from the last recorded value and having died by the end of the study period.
This 2-year prospective cohort study suggests an increased risk of hospitalization in HPN patients receiving MO lipid emulsion. The long-term effect of using MO lipid emulsion in HPN patients should be further evaluated using a large randomized controlled trial. THE STUDY WAS REGISTERED IN CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: (NCT02299466).

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