Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), such as polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis, are at increased risk for arterial and venous thrombosis/thromboembolism. In particular, the risk of splanchnic venous thrombosis, such as portal vein thrombosis or Budd-Chiari syndrome, is significantly higher in patients with MPN than in the normal population. At the same time, MPN patients are at increased risk for severe bleeding. Therefore, the treatment of patients with MPN must be based on their suspected probability of thrombosis/thromboembolism and bleeding. For this purpose, patient and MPN-specific risk factors are used. Patients at expected high risk of thrombosis should receive adequate primary or secondary thromboprophylaxis in addition to cytoreductive therapy. This may consist of antiplatelet agents and/or anticoagulant agents and must be balanced with the individual bleeding risk. The goal is to increase the quality of life and life span of patients with MPNs by preventing (re-)thrombosis and severe bleeding.Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
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