The objective of the current article is to promote a literature revision of the relationship between the prevention of intraepithelial neoplasms (PeIN) and invasive penile cancer, and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, aiming to enumerate the pros and cons of immunization.
The immunization against the HPV is sufficiently safe and many countries have incorporated the vaccine to their immunization calendar. Compared with men, the sampling size and the evidence quality of scientific researches among the female population are more robust. Some randomized and nonrandomized studies suggest that vaccination reduces the incidence of genital warts and no PeIN and penile cancer cases were developed in the vaccinal group. However, 70% of patients can evolve with the neoplasia despite having been immunized and even among HPV infected patients, only 1% will develop cancer.
The studies about vaccination against HPV and prevention on penile cancer are conflicting and the main academic urology societies still have not incorporated vaccination of men in their guidelines. Future studies are necessary to confirm the efficiency and cost-benefit of the vaccine in men to prevent intraepithelial neoplasms and invasive penile cancer.