A novel hybridized dual-targeting peptide-based nanoprobe was successfully designed by using the cyclic heptapeptide. This peptide has Arg-Gly-Asp-Lys-Leu-Ala-Lys sequence, in which the RGD homing motif and KALK mitochondria-targeting motif were linked via amide bond. The designed peptide probe was further modified through covalent linkage to induce dual-imaging functionality, and self-assembled to form spherical nanoparticles. The novel Cy5.5-SAPD-Tc nanoparticles were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and apoptosis-inducing functionalities. The cellular internalization, enhanced cytotoxicity and selective receptor binding capabilities against U87MG cells, excellent dual-imaging potential, improved apoptosis-inducing feature by damaging mitochondria, and in vivo preclinical investigations suggested that our newly designed novel hybridized peptide-based dual-imaging nanoparticles may serve as an admirable theranostic probe to treat brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme. This study describes the development of dual-targeting self-assembled peptide nanoparticles followed by modifications using NIRF dye and radiolabeled with Tc for dual-imaging and enhanced therapeutic efficacy against brain tumor.
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