1-Deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ), the main active component found in () is reported to be effective in controlling diabetes. We have evaluated the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves on the fasting blood glucose (FBS) and hemoglobin A1c% (HbA1c%) in diabetic patients. Furthermore, we compared the interaction of 1-DNJ and glucose molecules with the alpha-glucosidase enzyme, which has a critical role in the lysis of glucose-based polymers in human cells.
4% hydro-alcoholic extract was prepared from leaves. Patients in treatment (n=50) and control (n=50) groups received 3 mL extract or placebo in water, respectively, and three times a day. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c% were evaluated before and after three months of evaluation. Potential binding sites of 1-DNJ or glucose on the enzyme glucosidase found by docking study. Docking scores were obtained using an energy minimization method by Molegro Virtual Docker software. The Mean ± SD of each variable was compared between groups at the 95% significant level.
Age mean ± SD was equal to 54.79 ± 9.203 (38-69) years. There was no significant difference between intervention and placebo groups considering FBS (p=0.633) but was for HbA1c% (p=0.0011), before treatment. After three months, both FBS and HbA1c% were significantly reduced in patients under leaves extract-treatment. FBS changed was from 182.23 ± 38.65 to 161.23 ± 22.14 mg/dL in treatment group (p<0.001) and from 178.45 ± 39.46 to 166.23 ± 29.64 mg/dL in control group (p<0.001). HbA1c was changed from 7.23 ± 0.25 to 6.13 ± 0.61% in treatment group (p<0.001) and from 7.65 ± 0.85 to 7.12 ± 0.33% in control group (p=0.854). Docking results showed that 1-DNJ binds more efficiently, and with a significant score than glucose, to human alpha-glucosidase.
This clinical trial and virtual analysis showed that a hydro-alcoholic extract of () leaf may be efficient in reducing the blood glucose and HbA1c% in diabetic patients. Furthermore, docking studies propose a competitive and allosteric regulation for herbal ingredients. Drug-development could be based on the presented idea in this report.

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