A broad spectrum of conditions including neuropathic pain, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and fibromyalgia, have been implicated as causes of chronic pain. There is a need for new and effective treatments that patients can tolerate without significant adverse effects. One potential intervention is hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT). The case reported here is unique in describing repeated HBOT in a patient who developed recurrent post-traumatic CRPS of the lower as well as the upper limbs. In the first event, two months after distortion and abruption of the external right ankle, the patient suffered leg pain, oedema formation, mild hyperaemia, limited mobility of the ankle and CRPS Type 1. In the second event, the same patient suffered fracture-dislocation of the distal radius 1.5 years after the first injury. After the plaster cast was removed the patient developed pain, warmth, colour changes, oedema formation and limited wrist mobility with CRPS Type 1. Pharmacological treatment as well as HBOT were used with significant improvement of functional outcome in both cases. Some studies suggest that patients with a history of CRPS are more likely to develop secondary CRPS compared to the rates reported in the literature among the general population. Patients with a history of CRPS should be counselled that they may be at risk for developing secondary CRPS if they undergo surgery or sustain trauma to another extremity.
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