Traditionally, peritoneal surface malignancies (PSM) were considered terminal diseases because of their advanced nature, therefore, systemic chemotherapy was given with palliative intent only. As a result, very poor survival outcomes were observed. But with the introduction of complete Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the scenario has changed dramatically.
An objective electronic database search was performed in Pubmed, NLM Catalog, Google scholar, Bookshelf, and Pubmed Central published in the time period from 2000 till 2020. All the randomized studies were included. In the absence of randomized studies, both prospective and retrospective studies were included. The outcomes of HIPEC were measured in terms of median survival, disease-free survival, overall survival, complications and drug toxicities.
CRS and HIPEC are considered the standard of care for PMP and MPM even in the absence of level 1 evidence due to lack of an effective alternative treatment. In colorectal and gastric cancer, several phase-three trials are showing overall survival benefit in selected cases while there is a prophylactic and palliative role of HIPEC in gastric cancer. Three reported phase 3 trials showed positive results in ovarian cancer. In peritoneal sarcomatosis, the role of HIPEC is yet to be proven.
The patient selection is the key to the successful outcomes after HIPEC. HIPEC should be performed by the experienced surgeons in specialized centres with a strong critical care and intensive care support to reduce the morbidity and mortality. Ongoing trials and future directions will prove to be an indispensable arm in the oncological armamentarium.

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