Sleeve gastrectomy is the most commonly performed bariatric surgery these days but is associated with de novo reflux.
We aimed to study the influence of hypotonic lower esophageal sphincter (LES) on postoperative gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Patients with pre- and postoperative esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) and 24-h pH monitoring (pHM) were included retrospectively in our study. Preoperative hypotonic LES was defined by a mean residual pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter < 4 mmHg. Postoperative GERD was defined by a DeMeester's score > 14.72. We also evaluated postoperative manometric changes at the esophageal-gastric junction.
Sixty-nine patients (54 females and 15 males) had pre- and postoperative HRM and pHM. The mean age was 45.9 ± 9.8 years. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 47.5 ± 7.5 kg/m. Hypotonic LES concerned 21 patients (30.4%) before sleeve gastrectomy. The mean time between the two esophageal monitorings was 32.1 ± 24.1 months. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of hypotonic LES to predict GERD were 31, 70, 52, and 48% respectively. The LES minimal residual pressure was not statistically decreased after sleeve gastrectomy (p = 0.24). Only the wave speed, esophageal length, and LES length were significantly reduced after SG (p = 0.029, 3.8 × 10 and 0.00032).
Hypotonic LES has a poor predictive value on postoperative GERD. The LES’s length is significantly reduced after SG and this could be a factor explaining de novo reflux.