The aim of this study is to review current indications to diagnostic and/or operative hysteroscopy in primary and secondary infertility, as well as to determine its efficacy in improving fertility.
We gathered available evidence about the role of hysteroscopy in the management of various infertility conditions. Literature from 2000 to 2020 that pertained to this topic were retrieved and appropriately selected.
Hysteroscopy does not appear as a first line diagnostic procedure for every clinical scenario. However, its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in assessing intrauterine pathology is superior to all other non-invasive techniques, such as saline infusion/gel instillation sonography (SIS/GIS), transvaginal sonography (TVS) and hysterosalpingography (HSG). Hysteroscopy allows not only a satisfactory evaluation of the uterine cavity but also, the eventual treatment of endocavitary pathologies that may affect fertility both in spontaneous and assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles.
Hysteroscopy, due to its diagnostic and therapeutic potential, should be regarded as a necessary step in infertility management. However, in case of suspected uterine malformation, hysteroscopy should be integrated with other tests [three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] for diagnostic confirmation.

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