Sarcopenia has been confirmed as a poor prognostic indicator of lung cancer. However, the lack of abdominal computed tomography (CT) hindered the application to assess the status of sarcopenia. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of chest CT radiomics combined with machine learning classifiers to identify sarcopenia in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
This study retrospectively analyzed CT images of 99 patients with NSCLC. Skeletal muscle radiomics were extracted from a single axial slice of the chest CT scan at the 12th thoracic vertebrae level. In total, 854 radiomic and clinical features were obtained from each patient. Feature selection was conducted with FeatureSelector module, optimal key features were fed into the lightGBM classifier for model construction, and Bayesian optimization was adopted to tune hyperparameters. The model’s performance was evaluated by specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, F1-score, Matthew’s correlation coefficient (MCC), Cohen’s kappa coefficient (Kappa), and AUC.
A total of 40 patients were found to have sarcopenia. Five optimal features were selected. In the base lightGBM model, the specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, F1-score, AUC, MCC, Kappa of validation set were 0.889, 0.750, 0.833, 0.818, 0.783, 0.819, 0.649, 0.648, respectively. After Bayesian hyperparameter tuning, the optimized lightGBM model achieved better prediction performance, and the corresponding values were 0.944, 0.833, 0.900, 0.909, 0.870, 0.889, 0.791, 0.789, respectively.
Chest CT-based radiomics has the potential to identify sarcopenia in NSCLC patients with the lightGBM classifier, and the optimal lightGBM model via Bayesian hyperparameter tuning demonstrated better performance.
SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS OF THE STUDY: Our study demonstrates that chest CT-based radiomics combined with lightGBM classifier has the ability to identify sarcopenia in NSCLC patients.
Skeletal muscle radiomics would be a potential biomarker for sarcopenia identity in NSCLC patients.

© 2020 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.