The conjunctiva is a goblet cell rich mucosal tissue. Goblet cells are supported by tear growth factors and IL-13 produced by resident immune cells. Goblet cell secretions are essential for maintaining tear stability and ocular surface homeostasis. In addition to producing tear stabilizing mucins, they also produce cytokines and retinoic acid that condition monocyte-derived phagocytic cells in the conjunctiva. Aqueous tear deficiency from lacrimal gland disease and systemic inflammatory conditions results in goblet cell loss that amplifies dry eye severity. Reduced goblet cell density is correlated with more severe conjunctival disease, increased IFN-γ expression and antigen presenting cell maturation. Sterile Alpha Motif (SAM) pointed domain epithelial specific transcription factor (Spdef) gene deficient mice that lack goblet cells have increased infiltration of monocytes and dendritic cells with greater IL-12 expression in the conjunctiva. Similar findings were observed in the conjunctiva of aged mice. Reduced retinoic acid receptor (RXRα) signaling also increases conjunctival monocyte infiltration, IFN-γ expression and goblet cell loss. Evidence suggests that dry eye therapies that suppress IFN-γ expression preserve conjunctival goblet cell number and function and should be considered in aqueous deficiency.Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effects of bicornuate uterus on pregnancy and obstetric outcomes of in vitro fertilization / intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
January 11, 2021
Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy vs Biopsies in the Assessment of Persistent or Recurrent Intestinal Metaplasia/Neoplasia after Endoscopic Treatment of Barrett’s Esophagus related Neoplasia.
September 14, 2020
TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibril film from nano-structured bacterial cellulose derived from the recently developed thermotolerant Komagataeibacter xylinus C30 and Komagataeibacter oboediens R37-9 strains.
September 28, 2020
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- ENDO: 2020ENDO 2020 Annual Conference has been canceled due to COVID-19. Here are highlights of emerging data that has still been released. Keep an eye out for ENDO Online 2020, which will take place from June 8 to 22.