Considering the many advantages of oral vaccines in aquaculture, several studies have been conducted in this area recently. In this study, immunization and protective power of the oral vaccine of Yersinia ruckeri encapsulated with Alginate-Chitosan micro/nanoparticles were evaluated in rainbow trout. For this purpose, 720 juvenile rainbow trout (9 ± 1.8 g) were divided into 8 groups in three replications (30 fish each) as follows: Groups A, B and C, were immunized with Yersinia ruckeri lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS+Formalin Killed Cells (FKC) and FKC alone, groups D, E, and F were immunized with encapsulated LPS, LPS+FKC and FKC, respectively. The G and H groups considered as encapsulated and non-encapsulated control, respectively. Micro/nanoencapsulation with alginate-chitosan was performed by internal emulsification method and vaccination were conductrd in the first and third weeks via oral route. Sampling was performed on days 0, 30, and 60 of experiment. Anti Y. ruckeri antibody titer in serum, intestine and skin mucus were measured via ELISA method. Non-specific immune response including: serum lysozyme, complement, bactericidal and respiratory burst activity, serum protein and globulin level, as well as white blood cell count were compared among the groups. The expression of IgT gene in the intestine and TCR gene in the anterior kidney were also investigated. At the end of the study, the fish were challenged with Y. ruckeri through immerssion and intraperitoneal routs and the relative survival rate was evaluated. Result showed that the antibody level in serum, skin and intestine was significantly higher in group E and F than control groups (P < 0.05), meanwhile serum, skin and intestine antibody level in all vaccinated groups were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in day 30 and 60 compare to zero day. Non-specific immunity factors including: serum lysozyme, complement, and respiratory burst activity as well as WBC, protein and Globulin level were significantly higher in E and F groups not only in day 30 but also in day 60 of experiment (P < 0.05). Cumulative mortality following injection and bath challenge were significantly (P = 0.004) lower (35%-45%) in groups E and F compare to control group (80%). The IgT and TCR gene expression in groups D, E and F were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than control group. Highest upregulation of IgT and TCR gene expression in vaccinated groups were seen at day 30 and 60 respectively which were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than day zero. Generally, it can be concluded that nano/micronanoencapsulation of Y. ruckeri FKC+LPS with chitosan-alginate, not only increases protective efficacy of oral vaccine, but improves specific and non-specific immune responses in rainbow trout.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Ltd.