Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is increasing in Europe. We aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of TBE-vaccination.
This systematic review was registered at PROSPERO (#CRD42020155737) and conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. We searched CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus using specific terms. Original articles, case reports and research abstracts in English, French, German and Italian were included for screening and extracting (JER; PS).
Of a total of 2464 records, 49 original research publications were evaluated for immunogenicity and safety. TBE-vaccines showed adequate immunogenicity, good safety and interchangeability in adults and children with some differences in long-term protection (Seropositivity in 90.6-100% after primary vaccination; 84.9%-99.4% at 5 year follow up). Primary conventional vaccination schedule (days 0, 28, and 300) demonstrated the best immunogenic results (99-100% of seropositivity). Mixed brand primary vaccination presented adequate safety and immunogenicity with some exceptions. After booster follow-ups, accelerated conventional and rapid vaccination schedules were shown to be comparable in terms of immunogenicity and safety. First booster vaccinations five years after primary vaccination were protective in adults aged 50 years, lower protective antibody titers were found. Allergic individuals showed an adequate response and immunosuppressed individuals a diminished response to TBE-vaccination.
The TBE-vaccination is generally safe with rare serious adverse events. Schedules should, if possible, use the same vaccine brand (non-mixed). TBE-vaccines are immunogenic in terms of antibody response but less so when vaccination is started after the age of 50 years. Age at priming is a key factor in the duration of protection.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Ltd.