Patients with delayed B-cell reconstitution / B-cell aplasia after cellular therapy show decreased immunogenicity to the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. We prospectively evaluated both humoral and cellular immune response to a third vaccine dose in patients after allogeneic HCT (n=10) or CD19-based CAR-T therapy (n=6) with low absolute B cell numbers and who failed to mount a humeral response after 2 vaccine doses. Humoral response was documented in 40% and 17% after allogeneic HCT and CAR-T therapy, respectively. None of the patients with complete B cell aplasia developed anti-vaccine antibodies. Cellular response was documented in all patients after allogeneic HCT and in 83% of the patients after CAR-T. T-cell subclasses levels were not predictive for response, while a longer duration from infusion of cells was associated with a better cellular response. We conclude that cellular response develops with repeated vaccine doses even in patients with B-cell aplasia or delayed B-cell reconstitution, and these patients should therefore be vaccinated. These results should be considered in future studies analyzing immunogenicity in this population. Larger and longer follow-up studies are required to confirm whether cellular immunogenicity translates into vaccine efficacy.
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